QUE HAY EN VOL 28, NO. 1
INDICE Y ABSTRACTOS

María Arámzazu Alegre-González, Towson University, US
“Una exótica división continental como controversia renacentista en Libros de Viajes de la Península Ibérica”

Uno de los muchos y mayores mitos en la literatura de viajes medieval y posterior fue cualquier aspecto relacionado con el río Nilo, a saber, el origen de sus fuentes, las causas de su crecida, sus animales fabulosos y también su adscripción a África o a Asia, tema tratado en este artículo.

Pero este mito ya inquietó la imaginación de los geógrafos e historiadores grecolatinos. Y aunque este análisis se concentra especialmente en aquellas narraciones de cronistas y viajeros españoles entre los siglos XIV y XVI, con algunas referencias anteriores, hemos querido incorporar el precedente de algunos relatos de autores clásicos grecolatinos para probar tanto la universalidad de la experiencia psíquica y física del río como la influencia que evocaron las ya mitificadas narraciones grecolatinas en autores españoles y europeos de siglos posteriores.

En época clásica, la geografía tradicional ya atribuía a cada continente una autonomía propia con caracteres muy diferenciados, por lo tanto, la polémica literaria sobre la adscripción de Egipto y su Nilo a África o Asia no es una cuestión a dejar de tener en cuenta. Diversos autores occidentales, hasta el descubrimiento del curso y fuentes del Nilo en el siglo XIX, nos guste o no, tendieron a alimentar la imaginación y a transmitir las imágenes y teorías predominantes en los autores griegos y latinos.

 

Pedro Cebollero, Auburn University, US
“The Double Discourse of Indian Mythicizing in Cabeza de Vaca’s Naufragios”

How to interpret, in Cabeza de Vaca’s Naufragios, the presentation of Amerindians who are, at the same time, noble savages and evil, demonic beings?  This paper proposes to see this characterization as part of a dual discourse needed to justify the religious conquest of the Indians.  This discourse is based on the utilization of rhetorical models that try to rationalize the Christianizing of beings just good and intelligent enough to be ready for acceptance of the Word, yet with a partly evil, partly subhuman nature that would warrant their humanizing by means of evangelization.

Sarah E. Owens, College of Charleston, US
“Political Battles and an Inquest in a Mexican Convent”

The testimonies of bitter infighting between the nuns that plagued the colonial Mexican convent of La Purisima Concepción of San Miguel el Grande offer a fascinating glimpse into the power struggles of a colonial convent.  Severe accusations against the mother abbess such as faking an illness divided the sisters into two factions, ultimately leading to an inquest by ecclesiastical authorities. The purpose of this study is not only to review the letters and written responses to the inquest by the nuns, but also to explore the application of three non-traditional approaches of analysis to these documents.

 

Ricardo Castells, Florida International University, US
“Mujeres de armas tomar: el desagravio femenino en la comedia española del Siglo de Oro”

Los caballeros en el teatro áureo entienden que las manchas a la honra se lavan con sangre, pero también existen obras donde las damas deshonradas asumen la responsabilidad por el desagravio de su afrenta. Este artículo analiza los temas del género y del desagravio femenino en No hay burlas con las mujeres de Mira de Amescua y El caballero de Olmedo de Cristóbal de Morales. El comportamiento de las damas en estas comedias va en contra de los papeles tradicionales de las mujeres en el teatro áureo, lo cual altera el concepto del género en la comedia española.

 

Katia de Costa Bezerra, The University of Arizona, Tuscon, US
Rapsódia Rubra: The Struggle for the (Re)Appropriation of the Female Body”

Adelayde (Yde) Schloenbach Blumenschein was born in São Paulo in 1882. A rather independent woman for her epoch, Yde was criticized for smoking. In addition, in a time when women were supposed to stay home and take care of their family, she divorced and founded A Casa do Lampião de Gás - a place where intellectuals used to join to talk about art and literature. Yet the reason for her strongest rejection by society was the publication of Rapsódia Rubra: Poemas à Carne in 1961. To understand why this book caused so much uproar, this essay examines some of her poems to reflect on the role played by the erotic in her process of questioning.

 

Donna Janine McGiboney, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, US
“Writing and Identity in Inventar Ciudades by María Luisa Puga”

The title of Mexican writer María Luisa Puga’s 1997 novel reveals a spatial metaphor that can be interpreted on several levels.  Ultimately, the title addresses the problem of writing and identity as Licha, an educated writer from México City, her second husband Carlos, and her adopted eight-year-old daughter Lorenza, adjust to the “pueblo” in a rural Mexican province.

Each member of this family group shares an intense interest in writing. Their struggles are observed, discussed and recorded, in Licha’s old travel notebooks, as well as in Lorenza’s current journals. Increasingly aware that she and her aging husband may not be around for much of Lorenza’s adult life, Licha vows to make her adoptive daughter strong.  She will “invent cities” for Lorenza, and in turn teach Lorenza to “invent cities” for herself so that the child will grow to be productive and independent.  Writing is the key to building this emotional and intellectual architecture that will prepare Lorenza for the future. 

When Lorenza starts attending the local village school, she encounters many difficulties relating to class and gender.  With the use of the theory of cognitive mapping, introduced by Kevin Lynch and further developed by Fredric Jameson, the study examines how issues of writing, identity, and social injustice arise as this family of writers faces assimilation into and resistance from the local indigenous community.

The present study identifies four meanings which Puga infers with the phrase “inventar ciudades,” all of which are interdependent and contribute to a theory of writing.  This theory is not just a combination of academic techniques used in the narrator-protagonist’s writing workshops, but is offered up by the narrator—and the author—as a possibility for social liberation.

 

Angélica Tornero, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos México, México
“Expresiones de domino en ‘Las mariposa nocturnas’ de Inés Arredondo”

En este ensayo se explora el problema del mal en el cuento “Las mariposas nocturnas” de la escritora mexicana Inés Arredondo. Este cuento constituye un ejemplo relevante de las estrategias literarias desarrolladas por la autora a lo largo de su obra. Con gran maestría, Arredondo invierte el orden de las dicotomías bien-mal, culpa-pecado, para subvertir los valores convencionales, ofreciendo al lector la posibilidad de comprender el tema de manera distinta. El supuesto principal que guía esta reflexión es que son las acciones de dominio ejercidas por los personajes lo que modifica las relaciones de las dicotomías y el sentido.

 

Marisa Pereyra, Peace College, US
“Utopías locales en nuestra distópica Latinoamérica: Una aproximación a Lo que está en mi corazón de Marcela Serrano”

El artículo “Utopías locales en nuestra distópica Latinoamérica: Una aproximación a Lo que está en mi corazón de Marcela Serrano” ofrece una lectura de la novela que prioriza los discursos utópicos sobre otros posibles marcos teóricos. Basado en los trabajos del filósofo Ernst Bloch y del crítico literario Fernando Ainsa, Pereyra se acerca a la novela con la intención de descubrir y explorar la función analítica, crítica y subversiva del modo utópico. Al mismo tiempo, estudia los elementos formales que hacen que la novela pueda ser considerada una utopía feminista.  Investigando en dos frentes al mismo tiempo: el del ámbito público y el del privado, la autora ofrece un análisis de la visión utópica de Serrano y su lectura de los acontecimientos revolucionarios latinoamericanos contemporáneos, en especial, el levantamiento en el estado de Chiapas, México.

 

Shigeko Mato, Monmouth College, US
“Moctezuma in the City: Revisited Past in Carmen Boullosa’s Llanto: Novelas imposibles”

Llanto: Novelas imposibles (1992) by Carmen Boullosa appears to be a fantastic novel about Moctezuma returning to twentieth-century México City and his encounter with three contemporary Mexican women.  However, Llanto is not a simple fantastic fiction.  In this study, I examine how LLanto functions as an inquiring site in which the question of what happened to Moctezuma is constantly asked, but never fully answered.  Awakening Moctezuma, the ghostly figure from the sixteenth-century to twentieth-century México City, Boullosa disturbs the stable vision of what happened to Moctezuma.  In the process of asking/re-asking the question and examining/re-examining answers, Boullosa jars loose any fixity in the ways of interpreting the past event.

 

Stacey Parker Aronson, University of Minnesota, Morris, US
"Transformation and Turkish Threat in the Romance "Blancaflor y Filomena"

Mercedes Díaz Roig’s version the romance "Blancaflor y Filomena" in El romancero viejo offers the reader particularly sensationalistic brutality and torture to which the raped woman is subjected. The torturer is a male character whose metaphoric name—Turquino—evokes a xenophobic fear of the male as Turk and as Muslim and demonstrates a correlation between Tereus's cruelty in the Ovidian myth and the reputed cruelty of the Turks or Muslims. The raped and tortured body of Filomena’s sister Blancaflor becomes doubly the catalyst for her eventual vindication and a cautionary tale for other women of their impending fate.

 

ABSTRACTS OF THE BOOK REVIEWS

María Graciela Giordano, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
Ramón Hernández. Diáspora: relatos. Boulder: Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies, 2004, 175 pp.

Los relatos reunidos en Diáspora constituyen una cuidadosa selección de veinte cuentos con los cuales se ilustra la narrativa breve de Ramón Hernández. La prosa de este autor español parte de una realidad interna en la cual los personajes se ven obligados a crearse a sí mismos para sobrevivir en un medio que coarta su libertad individual. Diáspora es un valioso compendio del mundo narrativo de Ramón Hernández,  imprescindible tanto para los lectores que se inician en su obra como para los que ya han transitado por sus numerosas novelas.

 

David Murad, Saint Louis University, Madrid, Espana
Villanueva, Tino. Escena de la película GIGANTE. Trans. Rafael Cabañas Alamán. Madrid: Editorial Catriel, 2005. 96pp ISBN: 84-87688-22-5. Trans. of Scene from the Movie GIANT. Willimatic: Curbstone Press, 1993.

Tino Villanueva’s influential and award-winning work of poetry Scene from the Movie GIANT has been recently translated into Spanish thanks to Rafael Cabañas Alamán. Given that English and Spanish, both linguistically and culturally (and especially at the Chicano borderland), are so strongly present in Villanueva’s original piece, the translation seems necessary and fitting. Yet more than merely being a transformation of language to bridge equality, Cabañas Alamán remains faithful to the spirit and context, while also, at given circumstances, contributing to the overall complexity of the work as a whole.

 


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